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Ethernet Hub - Physical Layer Device

Hub is a network device connects multiple devices and makes single network segment. Hub works in Physical layer of OSI Reference Model. Since it is a layer one device, it does not have the feature to read the signals it transmit. All the devices connected to the hub feel they are connected to the same physical wire. So we can say hub has single collision domain. In other words a hub simply repeat the signal it receives. Let us check the working of hubs.


How Hubs work

When a computer connected to a hub sends packets, hub broadcast the packets to all the ports except the one it came from. Here we can see the difference between Switch and hub. Hub does not read the packets and it broadcast to all ports but Switch is intelligent device and read the packet and just unicast it. So Switch is more efficient compared to hub. Another problem with hub is the higher chances of packet collisions. We know hub has single collision domain and the chances of collision is very high.


Now a days very rarely we use hubs to connect network devices. Most networks use Switches to connect multiple network devices in a single network.

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