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Showing posts from March, 2009

How to Bypass Windows Admin Account Password Of Vista, XP, Windows 8

It is not rare that users forget the password set for Windows administrator account. Though Microsoft does not support password recovery, there are some methods to bypass the forgotten Windows admin account login details. This tutorial explains some well known procedures to bypass the Windows account login details for  Vista, Windows 8, 7 and  XP. It is important to understand, the successful procedure to bypass admin sign in for  Vista may not work for Windows 8 and vice versa. So I recommend you to read this tutorial carefully and choose the best method to recover or reset forgotten MS admin account login information.

1. Login To Windows XP Default Administrator Account
In XP computers, it is easy to access the computer even though you forgot the administrator password. We can bypass the Windows XP administrator account by using the default XP admin account created while installing OS on this computer. In most cases this default admin account is not password protected. So to bypass …

How to Secure Your Local Wireless Network from Hackers

Converting your office LAN in to wireless network can ensure the ease of networking by avoiding the coils of Ethernet cables. When I started my networking career, it was the confusing cables that welcomed me and my team in every office and it took time to understand which cable goes to which device since most of the Ethernet cables were not properly arranged. With the popularity of wireless network by the introduction of 802.11 ac and 802.11n, we do not need Ethernet cables to transfer data fast between devices in an office because both these wireless standards offer high data transfer speed. Though wireless makes an office looks smart, it has some security issues. It is true wireless networks are more prone to hacking compared to wired network.

Avoid Risks On Wireless Networks
A sophisticated hacker can easily intrude in to a wireless network compared to a wired network. It is because wireless offers a possibility to connect to the network if one user is in its range where in Etherne…

Solve "Ping:transmit failed, error code 1314"

Yesterday night I was disconnected from Internet connection. As the first step of troubleshooting,I tried to ping Google from my computer. I couldn't ping Google successfully due to an error message. I could fix the problem quickly but decided to write a tutorial about this new ping error code 1314. This tutorial explains what is ping error code 1314 and how to solve it. Here I copy the result of my ping test on command prompt. Out of four packets send, only one could reach successfully. It means packets lost.

Pinging google.com [209.85.171.100] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 209.85.171.100: bytes=32 time=283ms TTL=228 Ping:transmit failed,error code 1314 Ping:transmit failed,error code 1314 Ping:transmit failed,error code 1314 Ping statistics for 209.85.171.100: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 1, Lost = 3 (75% loss)
Troubleshooting steps
I just disabled the firewall on my computer and tried to ping Google again. It worked fine and the issue was fixed fixed. Here is the c…

Generations and distributions of Linux distros - Linux Family Structure

The generation of Linux distros from the basic Linux is as follows.


The major distros evolved from the Linux are:

1. Debian
2. SLS
3. Red Hat
4.Crux
5. Puppy Linux
6. Dyne: Bolic
7. Enoch


These are the major derivations of Linux distros. But the game still not ended. Again the new derivations of distros came. They are mainly classified in to deb based and rpm based. The Debian Linux and its derivatives are known as deb based distros. All Linux distros except Debian inherited are called rpm based distros.


Deb based Linux distros

1. Ubuntu
2. Linspire
3. Knoppix


Ubuntu is again inherited by:

i. Open GUE
ii. Linux Mint


Knoppix is again inherited by:

i. Damn Small Linux


Now we can check the major rpm based distros and their derivatives.

Rpm based Linux distros

1. SLS
2. Red Hat
3. Crux
4. Puppy Linux
5. Dyme: Bolic
6. Enoch


SLS is inherited by:

I. Slackware

Slackware is again inherited by:

i. Zenwalk
ii. Suse

The Linux distro SUSE is again inherited by Open Suse.


Red Hat is inherited by the…

Access To Add or Remove Programs is Restricted

Add or Remove Programs feature allows users to uninstall, install or repair software products installed on their Windows computers. If you do not want others to access this feature on your PC, you can restrict access to this window by disabling this feature on your computer. There are two methods to disable Add or Remove Programs on your computer. Either from Group Policy Editor or from Windows Registry. Both methods are explained below. At the end of the guide you can see how to lift restrictions to enter this feature. In most cases this restriction is due to recent malware infection. You can use the same procedure in case if you are facing troubles to enter this window on your laptop.

Disable Access to Add Or Remove Programs
From Group Policy Editor

Type gpedit.msc on Search and click on gpedit link

Go to the location User Configuration and click Administrative Templates

Click Control Panel and select install and uninstall software


Double click on Remove Add or Remove Programs

Select Enab…

Hide a Folder By Redirecting Them to System Files Shortcuts

There are so many third party tools available to hide  folders and content inside them from other users on your computer. However, we can do the same task without using any external software products. There are some Windows tricks to convert a folder and its content to system functions shortcuts. When a user click on the it, he will be redirected to system features like Recycle Bin, Control Panel, My Computer etc.This tutorial explains different methods to hide and secure a folder without using any third party tools.

Convert a Folder in to Control Panel Shortcut
In this example I have a folder named corenetworkz in the location D:\alex. Here I am going to change it (corenetworkz) in to Control Panel shortcut.
Type the command ren corenetworkz corenetworkz.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D} on a notepad

Save as lockaccendoz.bat (any name you can use) on D:\alex

Double click the bat file to run it.
Now it looks like Control Panel icon and when a user click on it, he will be redirected…

Configure Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP) with GVRP

Importance of Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP)

In a large network it is not practical to register and de-register the attribute values of switching devices associated in the network. To overcome the difficulty IEEE defines a new protocol which works in layer 2. The new protocol is named as Generic Attribute Registration Protocol or simply GARP.

Definition of Generic Attribute Registration Protocol

Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP) is a generic framework defined by the IEEE to provide bridges, switches, or other similar devices to be able to register and de-register attribute values, such as VLAN identifiers and multicast group membership across an large LAN.

How to implement GARP

To implement GARP, a GARP application has to be created. The best example for GARP application is GVRP. GVRP stands for GARP VLAN Registration Protocol. GVRP creates dynamic VLANs when GARP is enabled on the switch.GVRP is used for propogating VLAN information between switched where…

PPOE configuration in Ubuntu Linux --- Linux Networking tutorial

Some guys said it is difficult to configure PPOE connection in Ubuntu due to some mysterious reasons. But following the simple steps below we can configure PPOE in Ubuntu without any issue. The steps are provided below.


1. Go to systems and select preference

2. Click on Network Configuration

3. Go to DSL tab and click Add

4. Enter the connection name which you would like to give

5. Type the user name and password from your service provider at the user name and password field

6. Click OK and connect your computer to the Internet using PPPoE by selecting your connection from the Network chooser.


Suggested Topics on Linux networking

1. Configure Range Expander using Linux PC

2. Configure broadband in Ubuntu linux

3. Configure DSL in Fedora Linux



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Control Packets Traffic Using Access Control List

Access Control List (ACL) is a set of rules to control the traffic of packets in a computer network. In addition to control the traffic in a network ACL plays a big role in network security. It can prevent unauthorized movements of packets and restrict the privileges depends based on the source, destination and port number. It is defined in a way to avoid contradictions in rules. The top rule which matches the condition will operate and ignore the rest of rules. Here let us discuss the major uses and types of Access Control List.

Uses
The major uses of ACLs by network administrates are to control the telnet access through VTY and to filter the packets by defining the right rule on the basis of source IP address.

Control vty access into a router

Filter traffic that originates from the router

Types
There are two types of Access Control List. They are:
Standard ACL

Extended ACL
Standard ACL is based on the source IP address of the packet. Using standard ACL we can either block or permit traff…

Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)- Protocol tutorial

Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is used to exchange membership status information between IP routers that support multicasting. It is a is a communications protocol used to manage the membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups.

Uses of Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)


1. IGMP can be used for online streaming video and gaming.


Implementation of IGMP


The IGMP protocol is implemented as a host side and a router side. A host side reports its membership of a group to its local router, and a router side listens to reports from hosts and periodically sends out queries.


Versions of IGMP


There are three versions of IGMP. They are :


1. IGMP v1
2. IGMP v2
3. IGMP v3

IGMPv2 allows group membership termination to be quickly reported to the routing protocol than IGMPv1, which is important for high-bandwidth multicast groups and/or subnets with highly volatile group membership. Multicast routers use IGMPv2 to learn which groups have members on each of their attached physical ne…

Denial of Service (DOS) attacks - Tutorial

Denial of Service (DOS) attacks are intended to shut down or slow down targeted servers for a period of time. As the name says a successful DOS (Denial of Service) attack ensures legitimate users are not getting any kind of services from the victim. In general Denial of Service (DOS) attacks ensure the attacked server busy with forged connection requests and keep it on a status where the server is no longer able to accept connection request from any legitimate users. In this tutorial we would like to introduce some common methods to perform DOS attacks:


Common Methods to Perform DOS Attack
ICMP flood to Perform Denial of Service Attack:

Sending unlimited number of packets by ping command to the targeted server is known as ICMP flood. This method can be done in the following way.

A simple DOS attack code would be:

ping {ip} -t -l 20000

On command prompt window you can type the following command. This command sends 20000 bytes of data to the IP address, in a single packet. The -t is to p…

What is Smurf Attack & How to Prevent it

Smurf attack is a kind of attack where attacker generates uncontrolled amount of traffic in to victims network. Smurf attack is mainly targeting networks where routers are configured in a way to respond to ping packets. By pinging the broadcast address of victim network, attacker ensure a huge amount of packet flow from hosts connected to the network by responding to the ping request. Let us check the procedure to conduct Smurf attack.

Smurf attack Procedure
Spoof the IP address of attacker to avoid detection

Find the broadcast address of the victim network

Send huge amount of ICMP request to the broadcast address of the victim network(Directed Broadcast Address).

The ICMP request reach the gateway of the victim network.

Each hosts on the victim network responds to the ICMP request. This process amplifying the ping requests send by the attacker.

Ping response from hosts create uncontrollable amount of traffic in victim's network.

It will consume the useful bandwidth of the server. I…