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Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)

Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) introduces the concept of virtual router to improve the redundancy of default gateway of hosts. According to VRRP, virtual router (VR) is not just a physical router but includes the master and backup routers. The backup router will take place the position of master if the master becomes unavailable. So the default gateway of a host is configured as VR instead of a single physical router. However, at a time only one master is acting as the default gateway and master informs the backup routers its current status all the time.

VRRP and HSRP
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol is open source protocol which is very similar to Cisco's proprietary protocol Hot Standby Router Protocol. However, both protocols are not compatible despite their similarities.

VRRP Configurations Tips The default gateway of hosts is configured to VR

A group of physical routers comes under VR but only single masterworks at a time

Master informs backup routers its current sta…

How to Setup DSL Connection On Fedora Linux

If you are using Fedora Linux on your computer, it is very simple to connect a DSL Internet connection. This tutorial tells the procedure to add a DSL broadband connection to a computer having Fedora Linux. It is a GUI method and we do not need to go to the terminal to complete the procedure. Steps are provided below.



Configure DSL On Computer Having Fedora Linux
Go to desktop>Administration> Network

You can also reach network by typing the command system-config-network.

On Network Configuration window, follow the steps below.

Click on the toolbar and select newIt will open a new window Add new Device Type.Choose DSL connection and click forward Enter the ISP details including user name and password.
Check Internet Connection

To check Internet connection on Fedora Linux, go to Network Configuration window.

  The select new connection windowClick on activateType ping google.com
If we receive a reply, the connection is working fine.

Disconnect Internet From Fedora Linux

To disconnect DSL c…

How to Configure Broadband On Ubuntu Linux-- Simple Guide

It is not difficult to configure the broadband connection on a computer running Ubuntu Linus. This guide tells commands and procedure to configure DSL connection on Ubuntu step by steps. Make sure you have the Ubuntu setup disc. Make sure your computer is connected to the modem using an Ethernet cable.



Procedure to Setup Broadband On Ubuntu Computer
Connect your modem/router to your computer using a LAN cable

In Linux, Network cards(NIC) are named as eth0, eth1... and the naming depends on the order of detection of Network cards. If you have only one LAN card (Network card), it will be listed as eth0. If you have another, it will be eth1, and so on. If you have multiple cards, you need to find out which one is really eth0 and which one is really eth1 etc. (in Debian and Ubuntu, the configuration script will automatically detect the card which is connected to the ADSL modem/router).


Install pppoeconf package

In Debian based distributions (e.g. Ubuntu), you may use pppoeconf package.

This c…

Resolve Getting 169.254.X.X (APIPA) Windows Automatic Private IP Address

When a Windows computer failed to get a valid IP address from DHCP server, OS will automatically assign a Windows generated Automatic Private IP address called APIPA to it. This automatic Private IP address is in the range 169.254.0.1 to 169.254.255.254. In a nutshell, we can say any IP address in the range (169.254.X.X) is APIPA and it shows your computer is not connected to any network. Since APIPA (169.254.X.X) is a private IP address, your computer will not communicate to any other computers connected in the network(connected to a DHCP server). If you want your computer to communicate to other computers in the network, you must change 169.254.X.X IP address by fixing the issues which prevent your computer from getting a valid IP address from DHCP server. This tutorial explains major reasons to get APIPA and how to resolve it.

APIPA = Automatic Private IP Addressing

All Windows versions like Windows 8, Windows 7, Vista, XP etc support APIPA except Windows NT. Follow the instruction…

About Author

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Alex George
Alex George has Engineering graduation in Computer Science and an MBA in Finance. He had been working as a senior Network Engineer for ten years. His specialization is in Cisco products. Traveling is one of his hobbies and visited various places as part of his onsite work. He visited different places as part of his onsite work like New York, Dubai, London, etc. Right now Alex is a director of one of the leading career development firms in India, which trains students for UPSC, SSC, and PSC examinations. He guides a lot of students to get selection for various prestigious institutions like CBI, Income Tax Department, etc. Alex George is a stock market investor and a very active intraday trader. Engineering Background: He has a B.Tech in Computer Science and Engineering and passed different network and security courses like CCNA, CCNP (Security), CEH, and various Microsoft certifications. Finance Background: Alex has an MBA in Finance. He is an active intraday trader and a Share Market Investor. Webmaster Skills: Alex is a blogger since 2004. He has a working knowledge of HTML, CSS, PHP, and JavaScrip.

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