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Showing posts from July, 2007

Address Resolution Protocol & Display ARP Cache On Computer

Address Resolution Protocol(ARP) finds Physical address(MAC Address) of a network host from IP address of that host. To communicate between two devices, source device must know the IP address and MAC address of the destination device. If the destination device does not have MAC address of the destination device, it sends ARP broadcast to find the MAC address of the network host belongs to the IP address. The device having the IP address(destination device) will respond to the source device with its MAC address. Source device will update ARP cache with the newly find MAC address of the destination device. ARP cache stores MAC address of the other network devices for the future use and periodically undergo flushing to avoid obsolete entries.

How to Display ARP cache On A Computer
To view the MAC address entries stored in ARP(Address Resolution Protocol) cache on your computer, follow the steps below.
Start Command Prompt

Type arp -a to display current ARP entries on your computer


PS: arp …

Getting Device Manager Error Code 10

If any device connected to your computer is not working properly, first step is to check its status in Device Manager (DM). This tutorial explains device manager error code 10 and the solution to fix it. It tells the device cannot be detected by the computer. Error code 10 comes with following message: This device is either not present, not working properly, or does not have all the drivers installed. (Code 10). Now let us check the normal troubleshooting steps to resolve it.

Standard Procedure to Fix Device Manager Error Code 10 Check Connectivity

If the hardware not connected properly, you will get this popup. So make sure the unit is connected properly.

Reseat the unit

It is an extension of first step. You just disconnect the device and reconnect it. Check if the issue persists. This procedure is easy for USB devices because they offer plug and play support. For example if you are using USB wireless adapter to connect your PC to a WiFi network and having the same problem, you may dis…

This Device is Not Configured Correctly. (Code 1)

If your computer is unable to configure a device, device manager (DM) will show you error code 1. The complete error code 1 is This device is not configured correctly. (Code 1) To update the drivers for this device, click Update Driver. If that doesn't work, see your hardware documentation for more information. This DM alert is self explanatory. By reading the message itself one can understand the real reason to get this alert. The message also suggests the most effective solution for device manager error code 1.

Solve Error Code 1 Update Driver

As the warning suggests, the first step to solve error code 1 is to update the driver. To learn how to update driver installed on your PC, click the link below.
How to update Driver

Remove the Device

If the updated unit failed to fix the problem, you may want to delete it from Device Manager (DM). After deleting the hardware, you can reconnect it using Add New Hardware Wizard from Control Panel.
If you are still getting error code 1 even afte…

Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)

Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
____________________________________

IGRP is an interior gateway protocol

invented by cisco to replace the RIP.

It is a distance-vector routing protocol

used by routers to exchange routing data

within an autonomous system.



Important points
_______________ 1. IGRP supports multiple metrics for each

route, including bandwidth, delay, load,

MTU, and reliability

2.The maximum hop count of IGRP-routed

packets is 255 (default 100).



disadvantage
__________________ 1. IGRP is considered a classful routing

protocol.
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Routing Information Protocol (RIP)

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) - CCNA Tutorials


The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a dynamic routing protocol.It is inside the network to create a routing table
which helps routers to understand the layout of the network with changes in network connections. RIP is an interior gateway protocol (IGP) using the distance-vector routing algorithm.

Working of Routing Information Protocol

RIP is a distance-vector routing protocol. It uses hop count as the routing metric. 15 is the maximum number of hops allowed in RIP. RIP sends routing-update messages at regular intervals and when the network topology changes.The normal RIP updation time is 30 seconds while the hold down time is 180 seconds. RIP is based on UDP and working on the Transport layer. Routing by RIP is also called routing by rumor.



RIP Stability Features

RIP implements following mechanisms to maintain the stability. They are:

1. Split horizon
2. Route poisoning
3. Holddown mechanisms


Different versions of RIP

The major…