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OSI Reference Model

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) developed a seven-layer model called Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)Reference Model to help vendors and network experts to learn how data is transferred between networking devices. OSI Reference Model helps networking device manufacturers to implement new network standards and policies. OSI Reference Model helps network administrators to reduce the complexity of networks and makes it easy to troubleshoot networking issues.

Seven Layers of OSI Reference Model

There are seven layers in the OSI Reference Model and each layer has a specific role in data communication. Seven layers of the OSI reference model are listed below.

  1. Physical layer

  2. Data link layer

  3. Network layer

  4. Transport layer

  5. Session layer

  6. Presentation layer

  7. Application layer

What is The Need of OSI Reference Model

Prior to the introduction of Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model, each vendor has their own manufacturing standards. It forced the user to stuck with a single vendor for all his/her networking needs because devices from different vendors were not compatible. To overcome this issue International Organization for Standardization (ISO) introduced the seven-layer OSI architecture. OSI Reference Model tells how to connect two layers in networks and helped vendors to make products in universal standards.

Benefits of OSI Reference Model

The major benefits of OSI Reference Model in a computer network are listed below.
  1. OSI Reference Model promotes interoperability between vendors by defining the process of connecting two layers.

  2. By dividing a network into layers, we split complex network activities into a set of simple components.

  3. Helps vendors to follow a modular design
No:Recent Tutorials
1 Major Functions of MAC Sublayer in IEEE Ethernet
2LLC (Logical Link Control) IEEE 802.2


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Alex George
Alex George has Engineering graduation in Computer Science and an MBA in Finance. He had been working as a senior Network Engineer for ten years. His specialization is in Cisco products. Traveling is one of his hobbies and visited various places as part of his onsite work. He visited different places as part of his onsite work like New York, Dubai, London, etc. Right now Alex is a director of one of the leading career development firms in India, which trains students for UPSC, SSC, and PSC examinations. He guides a lot of students to get selection for various prestigious institutions like CBI, Income Tax Department, etc. Alex George is a stock market investor and a very active intraday trader. Engineering Background: He has a B.Tech in Computer Science and Engineering and passed different network and security courses like CCNA, CCNP (Security), CEH, and various Microsoft certifications. Finance Background: Alex has an MBA in Finance. He is an active intraday trader and a Share Market Investor. Webmaster Skills: Alex is a blogger since 2004. He has a working knowledge of HTML, CSS, PHP, and JavaScrip.