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Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)

Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) introduces the concept of virtual router to improve the redundancy of default gateway of hosts. According to VRRP, virtual router (VR) is not just a physical router but includes the master and backup routers. The backup router will take place the position of master if the master becomes unavailable. So the default gateway of a host is configured as VR instead of a single physical router. However, at a time only one master is acting as the default gateway and master informs the backup routers its current status all the time.


Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol is open source protocol which is very similar to Cisco's proprietary protocol Hot Standby Router Protocol. However, both protocols are not compatible despite their similarities.

VRRP Configurations Tips
  1. The default gateway of hosts is configured to VR

  2. A group of physical routers comes under VR but only single masterworks at a time

  3. Master informs backup routers its current status

  4. When the master fails, one backup router assumes the role of master

  5. The concept of Virtual router by Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol improves the redundancy

  6. MAC address of VR must be configured as 00-00-5E-00-01-XX

  7. The IP address used for multicast is

Other Routing Protocols
  1. Internet Control Message (ICMP)

  2. Internet Group Management (IGMP)

  3. Generic Attribute Registration (GARP)

  4. Remote Procedure Call (RPC)

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Alex George
Alex George has Engineering graduation in Computer Science and an MBA in Finance. He had been working as a senior Network Engineer for ten years. His specialization is in Cisco products. Traveling is one of his hobbies and visited various places as part of his onsite work. He visited different places as part of his onsite work like New York, Dubai, London, etc. Right now Alex is a director of one of the leading career development firms in India, which trains students for UPSC, SSC, and PSC examinations. He guides a lot of students to get selection for various prestigious institutions like CBI, Income Tax Department, etc. Alex George is a stock market investor and a very active intraday trader. Engineering Background: He has a B.Tech in Computer Science and Engineering and passed different network and security courses like CCNA, CCNP (Security), CEH, and various Microsoft certifications. Finance Background: Alex has an MBA in Finance. He is an active intraday trader and a Share Market Investor. Webmaster Skills: Alex is a blogger since 2004. He has a working knowledge of HTML, CSS, PHP, and JavaScrip.