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Showing posts from June, 2006

Fundamentals of Ethernet

Ethernet is LAN media type that uses CSMA/CD to send information and functions at Data Link Layer of OSI Reference Model. Ethernet media type having different physical topologies but having single logical topology: bus topology. With various physical topologies, we can design this network with different shapes but the communication happens in Bus topology only. It has two versions right now. One of them is DIX version and the second is IEEE version. This tutorial explains various topologies and versions of Ethernet.

Physical Topologies Supported Bus topology

Star Topology

Point to PointUses of Netstat CommandTransport Layer in a Network PING: Transmit failed. General Failure Destination Net Unreachable Destination host unreachable Enable Disabled Adapter Resolve Windows Automatic IP Hard Disk SMART Command Failed Error Solve TTL Expired in TransitPing Request Could not Find HostTwo Versions Of Ethernet DIX Version

DIX  Ethernet or Ethernet 2 is widely using now. This version does not …

What is WiFi & Different IEEE 802.11 Wireless Standards

Wi-Fi is the term used to denote Wireless Local Area Networks which are using IEEE802.11 wireless standards. Now the term WiFi is representing all Wireless Local Area Networks. Wireless technologies used in WiFi are IEEE 802.11a, b, g, n, and ac. In this tutorial let us check what is WiFi and the major 802.11 standards. You can also see a list of WiFi devices which supports them. At the end of the tutorial, you can see a backward compatibility checker chart. Using this chart you can take decisions related to extending your WLAN networks. With the help of the chart, you can avoid situations of buying a device which is not compatible with existing devices (standards which are not backward compatible).

IEEE 802.11 Wireless Standards Available In Industry




IEEE802.11ac Solve TTL Expired in TransitFunctions of Transport Layer PING: Transmit failed. General Failure Destination Net Unreachable Destination host unreachable Enable Disabled Adapter W…

IP Addressing Guide (IPv4 & IPv6 Addressing)

The IP address is the third layer address in TCP/IP Protocol Stack, given to each device connected to a network. In Internet layer of TCP/IP Protocol Stack, each device in a network is assigned with a unique address known as IP address. There are two versions of TCP/IP: IPv4 and IPv6. Right now we are using IPv4 version to assign a logical address to devices in a network. In this tutorial, you will learn the differences between IPv4 addressing and IPv6 addressing with different classes of IPv4 addresses.

Differences Between IPv4 and IPv6 Length

IPv4 is 32-bit address broken into four octets which are separated by a period. IPversion6 is 128-bit long address having the capability to give more addresses than IPversion4 offers. Examples of IPversion4 and IPversion6 addresses are given below.

IPversion4 addressing : or in binary form 00001010 00000000 00000000 00000001
IPv6 addressing : E3D7:0000:0000:0000:51F4:9BC8:C0A8:6420


IPv6 is a 128-bit binary number represented i…

Bluetooth Technology

Bluetooth is a short distance wireless technology defined as IEEE 802.15.1 to create Personal Area Networks. Right now Bluetooth is widely used in mobile phones to send and receive data. According to Bluetooth technology, there are a master and slave devices. A master device can connect to a maximum of seven slaves at a time. The frequency of Bluetooth is similar to IEEE 802.11 g/b. It is in the range of 2.4 to 2.485 GHz. Major advantages of Bluetooth over Wi-Fi is its low cost and low power. However, Wi-Fi has a wider range and faster data transfer rate.

Major Uses of Bluetooth Technology There are a variety of applications run with the help of Bluetooth technology. Some of the uses are:
Make an easy connection between mobile phones to send and receive files

Bluetooth technology enables wireless mouse and keyboard

Create a Local connection between PCs

Helps to create a short-range wireless network
Reset a Router Manually How To Power Cycle a ModemSetup Linksys WRT54G RouterConfigure Idea …

Basic Wireless Networks Tutorial

A wireless network uses the wireless signal to communicate between devices connected in the network. Here we use signals like radio waves, microwaves or infrared to send and receive data between two devices. Just like normal network types, they too classified into Wireless LAN, MAN, WAN etc. They are mentioned as WLAN, WMAN, and W-WAN respectively. This article gives you a brief introduction to each type of WiFi networks. We order them below according to the size of the area they cover.

<Uses of Netstat CommandFunctions of Transport Layer PING: Transmit failed. General Failure Destination Net Unreachable Destination host unreachable Enable Disabled Adapter Windows Automatic IP Address Hard Disk SMART Command Failed Solve TTL Expired in TransitPing Request Couldn't Find Host
Types of Wireless Networks WPAN

Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) uses to transfer data between two devices which are in short distance. Examples are Bluetooth and infrared. Some of the applications l…

What is Router & Major Functions

A router is a layer three (Network Layer in OSI Reference Model) device used to connect different networks. For example, if you want to connect two networks one is FDDI and other is Ethernet, we need a router. It also connects networks with the different network address. To move information between devices having different network numbers, we need a layer 3 device. Routers can switch packets on the same interface using VLANs.

Router and Routing Tables The router makes routing decisions based on the routing table it has. Routing table consists of path information to send packets to neighboring routers. Routing table with routing protocols helps router to find the shortest path to send packets to the destination.

Examples of Routing Protocols Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)

Routing Information Protocol (RIP)

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

Functions of Router
We cannot finish an article about router…

Functions of Wide Area Networks (WAN) Tutorial

Wide Area Networks(WAN) covers a large area extends from countries to continents. It is used to connect LANs together. It is like when we need to connect two LANs at different locations separated by a long distance, we need WAN to connect them. There are different WAN services used to connect different LANs situated at different locations. Cable and DSL are the two most popular WAN connections. Other than these two, there is a list of WAN services available.

List of Popular WAN Services Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)


Dedicated circuits


Analog Dialup

Frame Relay



SMDS (Switched Multi-megabit Data Services)
Popular Connection Types Used in WAN Services
There are four different connection types used in Wide Area Networks service. They are:

Circuit-switched services provide a temporary connection using a phone circuit. Analog dialup and ISDN are examples of circuit-switched WAN connection types.

Cell Switched:

Cell switched service use dedicated connections but it …

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

Metropolitan Area Networks in short MAN usually covers the area of a metropolitan city and is a hybrid between LAN and WAN. This type of networks covers a few kilometers. The cable TV network is an example of Metropolitan Area Network. But there is a difference. MAN is a computer network but cable TV connection provides TV broadcast. In a Metropolitan Area Network, two buildings in a city are connected and start data transfer. That means this connect two devices which are located far away but limited to a metropolitan location. It has the size of a metropolitan city. One of the differences between WAN and MAN is the connection speed. WAN offers low to medium connection speed but Metropolitan Area Network offers high-speed connection.

Technologies Used in MAN
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)



Ethernet-based MAN
Functions of Transport Layer PING: Transmit failed. General Failure Destination Net Unreachable Destination host unreachable Enable Disabled Adapter Windows Automatic IP Add…

Basics of Computer Networking

A network consists of all devices connecting each other in order to communicate between them across a small or large distance. Major components in it are computers, connecting cables, router, switch etc. It is important to create a network to improve the efficiency of users by allowing them to send and receive information easily. They are classified into LAN, MAN, and WAN according to the area it covers. Let us check each type of networks here.

Network Types LAN

To read more about LAN, click the link below.
Local Area Network


For the details about the Metropolitan Area Network, click the link below.
Metropolitan Area Networks


To learn more about it, click the link below.
Wide Area Network

Wireless Networks

To learn more about it, visit the link below.
Wireless Networks

Major Components in a Computer Network
All the hardware and software parts included in a network are network components. It includes computers, storage devices, hubs and switches, router, Ethernet cable etc. Let us check eac…

Local Area Network (LAN) -CCNA Study Material

Local Area Network(LAN) is used to connect networking devices in a small area like an office or campus building. The media type used to connect devices in a Local Area Network(LAN) is Ethernet, FDDI, Token Ring etc. 
LAN helps to communicate between devices in a smaller area and improve the efficiency of working in an office. Let us consider common topologies used in Local Area Network because it is in CCNA Exam Syllabus.
 It is classified into the physical and logical topology. In Physical Topology, you can see how devices in a LAN are connected but in Logical Topology, we can see how these devices are communicating.

LAN Physical Topologies
Point to Point

Here two devices are connected without any interference from other devices. In this LAN topology, these two devices are connected and communicated. Wireless Bridge is a good example of Wireless Point to Point Topology.
How to Configure Linksys WAP54G into Wireless Bridge Mode

Bus T

You can say it is an extension of Point to Point topolog…

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Alex George
Alex George has Engineering graduation in Computer Science and an MBA in Finance. He had been working as a senior Network Engineer for ten years. His specialization is in Cisco products. Traveling is one of his hobbies and visited various places as part of his onsite work. He visited different places as part of his onsite work like New York, Dubai, London, etc. Right now Alex is a director of one of the leading career development firms in India, which trains students for UPSC, SSC, and PSC examinations. He guides a lot of students to get selection for various prestigious institutions like CBI, Income Tax Department, etc. Alex George is a stock market investor and a very active intraday trader. Engineering Background: He has a B.Tech in Computer Science and Engineering and passed different network and security courses like CCNA, CCNP (Security), CEH, and various Microsoft certifications. Finance Background: Alex has an MBA in Finance. He is an active intraday trader and a Share Market Investor. Webmaster Skills: Alex is a blogger since 2004. He has a working knowledge of HTML, CSS, PHP, and JavaScrip.


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